Source Notes

John Lorinc – Introduction

 The story of Mary Lambert Swale’s bequest can be found in a short history of the Church of the Holy Trinity, by William Whitla — “The Church of the Holy Trinity: A Brief History” (Toronto, 2012). Primary sources include The Globe, The Toronto Daily Star, Goad’s Fire Insurance Atlas (1884-1924, available at, and various historical maps of Toronto (

Secondary sources include:

Eric Arthur and Stephen Otto, Toronto: No Mean City, 3rd Ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003).

J.M.S. Careless, Toronto to 1918: An Illustrated History (Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1984).

Charlotte Gray, The Massey Murder: A Maid, her Master and the Trial that Shocked a Country (Toronto: HarperCollins, 2013)

Lee Jackson, Dirty Old London: The Victorian Fight Against Filth (New Haven, Yale University Press, 2014)

James Lemon, Toronto Since 1918: An Illustrated History (Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1985)

Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives (New York: Dover Publications, 1971)

Victor Russell, ed., Forging a Consensus: Historical Essays on Toronto (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984).

Doug Saunders, Arrival City: The Final Migration and our Next World (Toronto: Vintage Canada, 2011).

Sarah Wise, The Blackest Streets: The Life and Death of a Victorian Slum (New York: Vintage, 2009).

 Arlene Chan – Against All Odds: The Chinese Laundry

The main sources consulted are Valerie Mah’s Masters thesis, “An In-depth Look at Toronto’s Early Chinatown, 1913-1933”; Lee Wai-Man’s “Dance No More: Chinese Hand Laundries in Toronto,” Polyphony 6, No. 1 (Spring/Summer 1984); Ban Seng Hoe’s Enduring Hardship: The Chinese Laundry in Canada; and numerous years of the Toronto City Directory.

Terry Murray –  Merle Foster’s Studio: ‘A Spot Of Enchantment’  

Most of the information on Merle Foster came from contemporary newspaper stories and magazine articles (see below); interviews with Foster’s late niece, great-niece, and the daughter of a family friend; and a review of interview transcripts and other notes about her life collected by the late Lawrence Hayward (held at the archives of Concordia University).

I am publishing a full biography of Merle Foster, with the working title “Come to Dust: The Long Life, Short Art and Shorter Afterlife of Merle Foster.” Updates on the progress of the book can be found at

The sources are: “Miss Merle Foster” (Rica McLean, Toronto World; 3 June 1923); “These Canadian women are doing men’s jobs” (Gertrude Pringle, Toronto Star Weekly, 14 August 1926); “Merle Foster’s ‘Make-Shop’” (Charity Mitchell Johnson, Quality Street, January 1926). “Women and Their Work: Merle Foster Creates Art Out Of Mud” (Dorothy G. Bell, Maclean’s Magazine, 15 October 1923); “Christmas Trees—and how to be one” (Elizabeth Hope, Chatelaine, December 1928); “Studio is Santa Claus for thirty children” (Toronto Daily Star, 24 December 1927); “Ask mittens for children” (Toronto Daily Star, 14 October 1932); “At a sculptor’s party” (Mail and Empire, 23 December 1930); “Over the tea cups” (Toronto Daily Star, 31 December 1932).

Ellen Scheinberg – Missionary Work: The Fight for Jewish Souls

This work relied on articles published in The Toronto Star and The Globe, along with an oral history from the Ontario Jewish Archives. The following are secondary sources:

Leah Rosenberg, The Errand Runner: Reflections of a Rabbi’s Daughter (Toronto: J. Wiley & Sons Canada, 1981).

Shmuel M. Shapiro, The Rise of Toronto’s Jewish Community (Toronto: Now and Then Books, 2010).

Stephen Speisman, The Jews of Toronto: A History to 1937 (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1987).

Michael Redhill – Where the Rich Went for Vice

Morley Callaghan, Strange Fugitive (New York City: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1928).

Patte Rosebank – Elsie’s Story

The main sources include:  The Toronto Star, The Globe, The Toronto Telegram, and the exceptionally rare The Mail and Empire.  Generally, the Toronto papers all carried reports on the same dates in 1927:  March 31; April 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 12; May 7, and 9. Sometimes, the facts in the different papers don’t match with each other, or with what my mother and grandmother told me.

I also found mentions of the story in newspapers as far away as California, and that on May 3, 1927, The Lethbridge Herald ran the story with the photo-collage from The Star, but said it happened “last week”.

My most intriguing find was the true story of Fong Yong’s earlier suicide attempt in the Don River, reported in The Star on February 25, 1924, and referred to in several 1927 articles. He is not named, and there’s no photo, but it’s definitely him.

Elsie’s online memorial is:  The gravestone says, “Elsie Albinia.” My grandmother told me that Elsie’s real name was Albinia, and that a teacher had once told her, “That’s not a pretty name for a girl.  I’ll call you Elsie.” She was Elsie from then on.

John Lorinc – “Fool’s Paradise”: Hastings’ Anti-Slum Crusade

This chapter is an adaption of a profile of Dr. Charles Hastings that appeared in the Spring, 2009, issue of Spacing. The primary sources are the Toronto Daily Star (1911-1929) and The Globe (same period). For an excellent history of the city’s public health department during that period, consult Heather McDougall’s Activists & Advocates: Toronto’s Health Department, 1883-1983 (Toronto, Dundurn Press, 1990).

Ellen Scheinberg – Strange Brew: The Underground Economy of ‘Blind Pigs’

The primary sources for this article include Canadian Jewish Review (1923-1924) and City of Toronto Archives, Annual Report of the Chief Constable, 1919 (fonds 2, series 60). The following are secondary sources:

Marni Davis, Jews & Booze: Becoming American in the Age of Prohibition (New York: NYU Press, 2014).

Craig Heron, Booze: A Distilled History (Toronto: Between the Lines Press, 2003).

Sammy Luftspring, Call me Sammy (Toronto: Prentice-Hall, 1975).

Antonio Nicaso, Rocco Perri: The Story of Canada’s Most Notorious Bootlegger (Toronto: Wiley & Sons, 2004).

Gaetan Heroux – The Stone Yard

“Cracking the Stone”: The Long History of Capitalist Crisis and Toronto’s Dispossessed, 1830–1930.” Labour / Le Travail 69.1 (2012), by Bryan D. Palmer and Gaetan Heroux.

Ruth Frager – Defiance and Divisions: The Great Eaton’s Strike

The sources include newspapers, union records, government records, and oral history interviews. For details on these sources and a more detailed account of the strike, see Ruth A. Frager, “Class, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Eaton Strikes of 1912 and 1934,” in Franca Iacovetta and Mariana Valverde, eds., Gender Conflicts: New Essays in Women’s History (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992), pp. 189-228; as well as Ruth A. Frager, Sweatshop Strife: Class, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Jewish Labour Movement of Toronto, 1900-1939 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992).

Andrea Addario – The Italian Consulate

The secondary sources include:

John Zucchi, Italians in Toronto: Development of a National Identity, 1875-1935 (Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1988).

John Zucchi, A History of Ethnic Enclaves in Canada (Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association, 2007).

Emily P. Weaver, “The Italians in Toronto,” Globe Saturday Magazine, July 1, 1910, p.6.

 Ellen Scheinberg & Paul Yee – Chinese Cafés: Survival & Danger

 The sources for this chapter include articles published in The Globe (1917-1928) and The Toronto Daily Star (1920). Secondary sources include:

Arlene Chan, The Chinese in Toronto from 1870 (Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2011).

Mariana Valverde, The Age of Light, Soap, and Water: Moral Reform in English Canada, 1885-1925 (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1991).

 Sandra Shaul – Divided Loyalties

The most important references for the First World War experience of those who lived in The Ward comes from Harney, Robert and Troper, Harold; Immigrants: A Portrait of the Urban Experience 1890-1930 (Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975).

Archival material for Central Neighbourhood House is located in the City of Toronto Archives. The importance of this material goes beyond painting a picture of attitudes and civilian life at the time of the war. Attestation papers and service records were not categorized by municipal wards or streets and so determining everyone who served from The Ward is not a simple task. The names that appear in the newsletters of CNH at least provided some source material to research in the Library and Archives Canada database of those who served:

In particular, Italian-Canadian Michael Sansone (page 193) was drafted under the Military Service Act (1917) in June 1918, just short of his 23rd  birthday. He did not volunteer, likely because he was a family breadwinner, and not because he was unpatriotic (the 1917 conscription debate divided Canadians along linguistic and ethnic lines).

The rights of “enemy alien” citizens and ethnic minorities during the war is a topic in itself.  It goes beyond the imprisonment in camps throughout Canada. Naturalized Canadians classified as “enemy aliens” who did not have someone serving in the army overseas were disenfranchised through the Wartimes Election Act if they had landed in Canada after March 31, 1902. Canadians tend to focus on the aspect of the Act that gave women the right to vote for the first time if a husband, father, brother or son was serving overseas. On the other hand, the Military Voters Act passed in August 1917 gave the vote to all Canadian soldiers regardless of how long they had lived in Canada before enlisting.

Richard Dennis – Toronto’s Original Tenement: Wineberg Apartments

My inspiration for researching the Wineberg Apartments was an article entitled ‘Sociological and Economic Advantages of the Apartment House’ published in Construction 1 (2), November 1907. I first read it on microfilm in the Toronto Reference Library more than 20 years ago, but it is now available at Early Canadiana Online.

Most of the other sources for my essay were from the Toronto press (especially The Globe, Dec. 11, 14, 15, 1906; Feb. 25, 1907; Jan. 15, 1908; Dec. 31, 1915; Dec. 30, 1919; Toronto Daily Star, Feb. 25, 1907; Dec. 23, 29, 1915; and Toronto World, Dec. 4, 1910); the 1911 and 1921 censuses ( for 1911 and freely available through for 1921); and the City of Toronto Archives (building permits, assessment rolls, directories, Goad maps, and plans – in this case, CTA, PT13-1460, Plans for Stores and Apartments, F.H. Herbert, Apr. 10, 1907).

Information on Herbert’s other ventures came from ‘Biographical Dictionary of Architects in Canada 1800-1950: Herbert, Frederick Henry’, online at and some of Herbert’s buildings also feature in Patricia McHugh, Toronto Architecture: A City Guide, McClelland & Stewart, 1989.

There is a webpage devoted to ‘Harry Winberg, mayoral candidate in 1915’  among Bill Gladstone’s pages on Toronto Jewry, and Win(e)berg also gets several pages in Stephen A. Speisman, The Jews of Toronto: A History to 1937, McClelland & Stewart, 1979.

To set Wineberg’s building in the context of other early Toronto apartments, see my essays on ‘Interpreting the apartment house: modernity and metropolitanism in Toronto, 1900-1930’, Journal of Historical Geography 20 (1994), 305-322, and ‘Apartment housing in Canadian cities, 1900-1940’, Urban History Review/Revue d’histoire urbaine 26 (2) (1998), 17-31.

Richard Harris – Slum-free: The suburban ideal

The experience of immigrant owner-builders in Earlscourt, and in a number of other suburban districts in the early twentieth-century, was well-known at the time but soon forgotten. Contemporary comments about lower-income suburbs were made by observers mainly interested in the central immigrant neighbourhoods. These included the Bureau of Municipal Research (1918) and Mary Joplin Clarke (1974). The role of the Methodist church is indicated in the work of Peter Bryce (1915) and J.S. Woodsworth (1911). Irving, Bellamy and Parsons (1995) have written about the inner-city settlements. On Earlscourt, see the contemporary account of Lewis (1920) and the historical study by Harris (1996), which provides a broad account of the changing social geography of Toronto’s suburbs to 1950. A recent study of Toronto neighbourhoods has documented the fate of the early twentieth-century suburbs, now inner suburbs of the amalgamated City of Toronto (Hulchanski, 2010).

Secondary sources include:

John Zucchi, Italians in Toronto: Development of a National Identity, 1875-1935 (Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1988).

Peter Bryce, At the Service of the People (Toronto: Earlscourt Methodist Churches, 1915).

Bureau of Municipal Research. What is ‘The Ward’ Going to do with Toronto? (Toronto: 1918).

Mary Joplin Clarke. “Report of the Standing Committee on Neighbourhood Work,” in Paul Rutherford, ed., Savings the Canadian City. The First Phase, 1880-1920. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974)

Richard Harris. Unplanned Suburbs. Toronto’s American Tragedy, 1900-1950. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).

  1. David Hulchanski, The Three Cities Within Toronto. (Toronto: Cities Centre Press, University of Toronto, 2010).

Irving, A., Bellamy, D., and Parsons, H. Neighbours. Three Social Settlements in Downtown Toronto (Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 1995).

Lewis, V. “Earlscourt, Toronto. A Descriptive, Historical and Interpretative Study in Social Class Development.” (Unpub. MA Thesis, University of Toronto, 1920).

J.S. Woodsworth. My Neighbor. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972)

 Ellen Scheinberg – Paper Pushers

Primary sources include phone interview with Maxine Casby, 31 July 2013 and City of Toronto Archives, Children’s Aid Society Fonds (#1001). Secondary sources include:

C.S. Clark, Of Toronto the Good: A Social Study: The Queen City of Canada as it is (Montreal: Toronto Publishing Company, 1898).

J.J. Kelso, Small Newsies, January 25, 1911.

David Nasaw, Children of the City: At Work and at Play (New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2012).

Ontario, Report of Committee on Child Labour (Toronto, 1907).

Michael Piva, The Condition of the Working-Class in Toronto, 1900-1921 (Ottawa: Ottawa University Press, 1979).

Arthur Zimmerman and Betty Minaker Pratt, “George White: Toronto Star Newsboy Builds a Stairway to Broadway,” Antique Photograph News, September-October 2010.

Thelma Wheatley –  Dr. Clarke’s Clinic

C.M.H.A. archives, Canadian Conference of Charities and Public Corrections Proclamation, Toronto, March, 1916.

Charles K. Clarke, “A Clinic for Nervous and Mental Diseases,” Bulletin of the Ontario Hospitals for the Insane Vol. IV (January 1911).

Charles K. Clarke. “A Study of 5,600 Cases Passing through the Psychiatric Clinic of Toronto General Hospital, also a study of 188 clinic cases and 767 cases of illegitimacy,” Canadian Journal of Mental Hygiene 3: 11-24 (July 1921).

—, “Occupational Wanderers,” MacLean’s Magazine, April 15, 1922.

—, “The Defective and Insane Immigrant,” The University (Toronto) Monthly No. 8 (June 1908).

—, “The Story of the Toronto General Hospital Psychiatric Clinic,” Canadian Journal of Mental Hygiene, vol. 1 (April 1919).

Cyrel Greenland, Charles Kirk Clarke: A Pioneer of Canadian Psychiatry (Toronto: The Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, 1966).

Brenda Maddox, Freud’s Wizard: Ernest Jones and the Transformation of Psychoanalysis. (NY: DaCapo Press, 2006).

Andrew Paskauskas,  Ernest Jones: A Critical Study of His Scientific Development,1896-1913. Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, 1985.

Jennifer Stephen, “’The Incorrigible’, the ‘Bad’, and the ‘Immoral’: Toronto’s ‘Factory Girls’ and the Work of the Toronto Psychiatric Clinic,” Law, Society and the State: Essays in Modern Legal History, Eds. Louis A. Knafla and Susan W.S. Binnie (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995).

Veronica Strong-Boag, The Parliament of Women: The National Council of Women of Canada, 1893-1929 (Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1976.)

Thelma Wheatley, And Neither Have I Wings To Fly: Labelled and Locked Up in Canada’s Oldest Institution (Toronto: Inanna Publications, 2013.

Ellen Scheinberg – Public Baths: Schvitzing on Centre Avenue

Norman Bornstein, ‘Hot Rocks: The Story of the First Jewish Steam Bath in Toronto,’ unpublished.

Canadian Engineering Magazine, November 19, 1909.

Department of Health, ‘Report of the Medical Health Officer Dealing with the Recent Investigation of Slum Condition in Toronto,’ July 5, 1911.

 The Globe (1910-1923).

Andrea Renner, ‘A Nation That Bathes Together: New York City’s Progressive Era Public Baths,’ Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 67 (December, 2008).

 Toronto Star, September 25, 1909.

 Toronto Telegram, September 6, 1909.

Marilyn T. Williams, Washing ‘The Great Unwashed’: Public Baths in Urban America, 1840–1920 (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1991), 23.

 John Lorinc – A Short History of the Civic Square Expropriation

The information in this chapter is drawn from press accounts and the minutes of Toronto City Council (1943-1950), which are available at the City of Toronto Archives reading room.

Elise Chenier – Sex Work and The Ward’s Bachelor Society

For information relating to the sources relied upon in this article please see Elise Chenier, “Sex, Intimacy, and Desire among Men of Chinese Heritage and Women of Non-Asian Heritage in Toronto, 1910-1950,” Urban History Review 42:2 (2014).

Scott James and Victor Russell – Institutional Memory

City of Toronto Archives, Arthur S. Goss City Photographer: Works by Toronto’s Official Photographer, 1911-1940 (City of Toronto Archives, Market Gallery, March 8 –

May 11, 1980).

Blake Fitzpatrick and John Bentley Mays, Arthur S. Goss: Work and Days (Ryerson University Gallery, May-June 2013)

Robert F. Harney and Harold M. Troper, Immigrants: a portrait of the urban experience, 1890-1930 (Toronto, 1975)

Scott James, “Cleaning glass negatives,” (The Canadian Archivist, 1974)

Michel Lambeth, Made in Canada: photographs of Toronto from the collection of Michel Lambeth (Toronto: Editions Grafikos, 1967).